The information on this CD draws on the experiences and observations of crop consultants, growers and scientists. Growers and consultants have provided feedback that has been invaluable in developing practical IPM programs as well as methods for distributing Trichogramma in the field.
The insecticide toxicity ratings are largely based on laboratory studies by Brad Scholz QDPI but also includes observations from the field made by growers and consultants. Some of these ratings may change as more studies are done and more in-field information becomes available.
I would like to thank the many growers, consultants and scientists who have contributed, in various ways towards a better understanding of Trichogramma and how to best utilise the activity of this amazing little creature. These include: Andrew Johansen, Warren Ford, Shane Gishford, Scott Gough, Dave Parlarto, Chris Monsour, Loren Davey, Graham Boulton, Bernie Caffery, Gary Artlett, Neil Wegener, Geoff McGrath, Brett Slater, Brad Scholz, Dave Murray, Liu Shu-sheng, Sandra MacDougall, Peter Ridland, John Duff.
References and further reading
Balasubramanian, S; Arora, R.S and Pawar, A.D. (1989). Biological control of Heliothis armigera using Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and nuclear polyhedrosis virus in Srigangangar district of Rajasthan. Plant Protection Bulletin Faridabad. 41:3-4, 1-3.
Beckingham, C. (1999) Developing and IPM system for improved control of Heliothis in processing sweet corn -Bathurst and Cowra 1998-99 Season. 130-151 in Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on Insect Pest Management in Sweet Corn, Bathurst May 1999.
Beckingham, C. and Llewellyn, R. (2000) Developing an IPM system for improved control of Heliothis in processing sweet corn -Bathurst, Cowra and Dubbo 1999-2000 Season. 33-48. in Proceedings of 3rd National Workshop on Insect Pest Management in Sweet Corn, Bowen May 2000.
Butz, H. and Llewellyn, R.R. (1997) Quality Assurance procedures for Trichogramma spp. and maintenance of large colonies for field evaluation. HRDC Report HG 403.
Cleary, A. and Scholz, B. (2002) Evaluating the toxicity of insecticides on immature and adult Trichogramma pretiosum. Proceedings of the Eleventh Australian Cotton Conference pp 251-257.
Cunningham, J.P., Zalucki, M.P. and West, S.A. (1999). Learning in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a new look at the behavior and control of a polyphagous pest. Bulletin-of-Entomological-Research, 89: 3, 201-207.
Dietrick, Jan. (1998). Biological Control in Turkmenistan &endash; 1998. Report to the World Bank.
Gardner, J. and Giles, K. (1997). Mechanical Distribution of Chrysoperla rufilabris and Trichogramma pretiosum: Survival and Uniformity of Discharge after Spray Dispersal in an Aqueous Suspension. Biological Control 8, 138&endash;142.
Greatti, M. & Zandigiacano, P. (1995) Post release dispersal of T. brassicae Bezdenko in corn field. Journal of Applied Entomology, 119: 671-675.
Gu, H. and Walter, G.H. (1999). Is the common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) a primary host plant of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Oviposition and larval performance. Journal-of-Applied-Entomology, 123: 2, 99-105.
Gurr, M.G. and Nicol, H.I., (2000). Effect of food on longevity of adults of Trichogramma carverae and Trichogramma nr brassicae, Australian Journal of Entomology. 39, 185 &endash; 187.
Hassan, S.A. (1994). Selection of Trichogramma species in Wajnberg, E. & Hassan, S.A. eds. Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids. CAB International. 55-71.
Hoffmann, M. P., and Frodsham, A., (1993). Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests, Cornell Cooperative Extension.
Hoffmann, M.P; Wilson, L.T; Zalom, F.G. and Hilton. R. J. (1990) Parasitism of Heliothis zea eggs: effect on pest management decision rules for processing tomatoes in the Sacramento Valley of California. Environmental Entomology, 19:3, 753-763.
Keaster, A., (1998) Corn Insect Pests, A diagnostic Guide, University of Missouri.
Kfir, R. (1983) Functional response to host density by the egg parasite Trichogramma pretiosum. Entomophaga, 28: 4, 345-353.
Klemm, U. and Schumutterer, H. (1992) Selection of effective egg parasitoids of the genera Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea and diamond back moth control in Taiwan. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie. 8:1-3, 82-86.
Knutson, Allen., (1998). The Trichogramma Manual, Texas Agricultural Extension Service.
Knutson, A. and Ruberson. J., Recognising the Good Bugs in Cotton. Texas Agricultural Extension Filed Guide.
Llewellyn, R.R. (1997) Development of mass production and field delivery systems for Trichogramma wasps. HRDC Final HG504.
Llewellyn, R.R. (2000) Sweet corn insect pests and their natural enemies, HRDC.
Llewellyn, R.R. (2000) Trichogramma wasps in vegetable IPM programs. HRDC Report VG 97040
Llewellyn, R.R. (2002) The Good Bug Book - Second Edition, Integrated Pest Management Pty Ltd
Li-Ying Li, (1994). Worldwide use of Trichogramma for biological control on different crops: A survey, in Wajnberg, E. & Hassan, S.A. eds. Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids. CAB International. 37-53.
Liu, Shu-sheng, Llewellyn, R., Duff, J.D., (1998) Acceptance of Diamondback Moth Eggs for Parasitization by Trichogramma in the Laboratory. Unpublished report.
Liu, Shu-sheng, Llewellyn, R., Duff, J.D., (1998) Identification of a Trichogramma Species Collected from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, in the Locker Valley, Queensland, Australia. Unpublished report.
McLaren, I.W. and Rye, W.J. (1981). Occurrence of Trichogramma ivelae and its use to control Heliothis punctiger on tomatoes. J. Australian Entomological Soc. 20:110
Monsour, C. (2000) Assessment of Trichogramma pretiosum Releases as Best Management Option for Control of H. armigera in Sweet Corn in North Queensland in Proceedings of 3rd National Workshop on Insect Pest Management in Sweet Corn, Bowen May 2000.
Morrison, R. K; Rose, M. and Penn, S. (1995) The effect of extended immersion in agitated liquid carriers on the viability of two entomogphagus insects. Southwestern Entomologist, 23:2, 131-135.
Nordlund, D. A., Wu. Z. X. and Greenberg, S. M. (1997). In Vitro Rearing of Trichogramma minutum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for Ten Generations, with Quality Assessment, Comparisons of in Vitro and in Vivo Reared Adults. Biological Control 9, 201&endash;207.
Pyke, B. A. and Brown, E. H., (1996) The Cotton Pest and Beneficial Guide. CRDC & CPTM.
Smith, M; Ridland, P and Bentley, J. (1994) Integrated Pest Management &endash; It works! And other articles in Australian processing Tomato Grower, Vols 15 & 16.
Va´ squez, L. A., Shelton, A. M, Hoffmann, M. P. and Roush, R. T. (1997). Laboratory Evaluation of Commercial Trichogrammatid Products for Potential Use against Plutella xylostella. Biological Control 9, 143&endash;148.
Scholz, B. C. G., (1994). An evaluation of parasitoids for the management of heliothis, HRDC Final Report V106.
Scholz, B.C.G., Monsour, C.J. and Zalucki, M.P. (1998). An evaluation of selective Helicoverpa armigera control options in sweet corn. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 38: 601-607.
Scholz, B. C. G., (2003) Utilising Parasitoids in South Queensland Cotton, CRDC Final Report Project DAQ 125C
Smith, S. A., Methods and Timing of Releases of Trichogramma to Control Lepidopterous Pests, (1994). In: Biological control with egg parasitoids, ed. E. Wajnberg & S.A. Hassan, CAB International.
Steffey, K.L., (1999). Handbook of Corn Insects, Entomology Society of America.